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Memoir of an amateur thinker and survey of this site, in sections:

Language reform; Constitutional Economics; Scientific Method of Elections;
Science of Love; Scientific method ethics; Poetry; Mathematical proof as
objective election; Binomial STV; Statistical algebra of amplitude symmetry and
Statistical differentiation of Interval acceleration.

Forty years independent study in one sentence: Moral science is the truth of knowledge in freedom as a balancing act of love against socially destabilising force and fraud.

A new metafysics and model of reality synthesising the deterministic & statistical world-views.

Simple election quota arithmetic background to a new meta-physics of physics
and mathematics, that the deterministic and statistical philosophies of science
can be understood in terms of an "elective" or choice-based world-view.

Electoral science belongs to the whole range of sciences that describe an
evolution of equilibrium states in nature, where scope for disorder in order,
permits (meaningful choice of) new orders.

History of physics as guide to good method also in elections. The transferable voting system compared to special and general relativity, resulting in concepts of "accelerated" choice and social gravity effecting a shift from pure self-representation.

To classify four kinds of love, which are romance, friendship, affection and charity, in an ordered relationship is to begin the logic of measurement for a 'science' of love. Based mainly on The Four Loves by C S Lewis.

seeking the whole man thru a democracy of ones selfs.

Shortly before world war one, H G Wells began a campaign for "proportional
representation with the single transferable vote in large constituencies"
lasting over a decade, when the split in support between three main parties
(currently the case again in Britain) almost brought about this reform.

The condition of democracy for world peace, which Wells promoted for the rest
of his life. Bibliographies and quotes from Wells writings on PR and also on
economic representation.

- Constitutional Economics. Resolving the conflict between capitalism and socialism by interpreting the economy in terms of a constitutional democracy.
The Second Chamber Of Science (an 'economic parliament').

Scientific theory is checked in practise, so parliament's first chamber, representing political theories, should be checked by a second chamber, giving overall democratic representation of economic practise from occupational constituencies. Relation of proposed economic parliament to judiciary and the political parliament. Its evolution and importance for human rights. Conclusion.

Second Chamber reform: a review of the House of Lords Royal Commission, the Wakeham report.

The Wakeham report as a committee system of government.

Refuting the 'practical obstacles' seen to vocational elections. The establishment mind-set, of the Wakeham committee and their hostile Press, can only think of appointed experts or elected politicians plus appointed politicians, but not elected experts by vocational groups of colleagues.Open letter to the joint committee on Lords reform.

In february 2003, Parliament dead-locked itself over the conflicting half-truths exposed, on the previous web page, and in this open letter to the joint committee.

Plutocracy and Bureaucracy, or Democracy?

Plutocracy and bureaucracy rob people of their freedom, thru untrustworthy investments and over-bearing regulations. A small sample is quoted, from the Press, of the outrages big business and big government have inflicted on the general public. The best public defense, against mass exploitation and subordination, would include effective elections, and freedom of information, in political and also economic democracy.

- A nations decline with the aversion to
democracy.
The closed shop of political government and business management has deprived Britain of the collective wisdom and knowledge of the nation, which has declined accordingly.

- A default government pushes more nuclear power pollution. (25 july 2006.)
- Big Business leads New (for Nuclear) Labour to pollute the future.
- The Nuclear Vested Interest and a Nuclear
Winter.
(

The need to build up the constitutions immune system against parasite politics.*2 feb. 2008*). - Response to Tory party commitment to more
nuclear power stations and their fifty-year subsidised command economy
failure. (
*13 february 2010.*) - Journalist partisans for nuclear power. (
*Dec. 2010*)

Media failure to give balanced debate with respect to anti-nuclear Greens case for alternative energies and conservation.

The determined dishonesty of atomic
energy.

After-word to the above pre-Fukushima essays.

Nuclear deterence threatens its own
world war crime.

Retalation joins-in a breach of the peace and nuclear deterence is a threat to
do so, on the scale of a world war crime.

single transferable vote (STV) justification.

- Foul! Referee electoral system abuse.
Reasonable standards of scientific method in the voting system monitored or refereed by specialist representatives of all the people's occupations, instead of governing parties being their own referees in political contests.

- War games politics censor knowledge thru free
enquiry.
War may be out-lawed in so far as the use of force becomes impractical. But a war games mentality persists in politics, as fraud. Apart from ecological fraud, on the planet's resources, propaganda wars promote popular fallacies, by censoring free criticism of dogmas or doctrines that serve factional interests against the common interest.

Why do we never learn anything from history?

Because, politics is conducted as an information war, between factions seeking support, to show themselves in a better light than their rivals. This prevents knowledge, thru free enquiry, which would serve all society and not just those seeking self-defeating short-term gains.

- A Criticism Of The Plant Report.
Disproving the Plant Report's dogma of different voting systems for different assemblies. Answering Plant's questions on plurality systems and proportional systems. Detailed justification of the single transferable vote against the Plant report's critical questions. Plant's failure to adequately criticise List Systems including Additional Member Systems.

The second interim Plant report's inconsistencies stemmed from determination to keep the (monopolistic) single members' (safe seats) system before all other considerations. - (Ignored) Open letter to the Speakers
Conference on Parliamentary Representation.
The terms of reference consider only women and social minorities, and not political minorities in public life, not admitting that the former cannot be achieved without the latter.

- The Two Cultures and electoral lawlessness in
Britain by the turn of the twenty-first century.
Anarchy of electoral methods in Britain. Relevance, to bad government, of C P Snow on 'the two cultures'. Early reception of the Jenkins report on electoral systems.

- The moral sciences as the ethics of
scientific method.
Social science as the social function of scientific method, that achieves democracy by progressive scientific re-statement of the law-like condition of unanimity in liberty.

Max Weber work ethic and my student mistakes.

Max Weber's sociological method as a compromise with the state.

Avoiding my student mistakes in one's study methods.- Pitirim Sorokin as The Invisible Man.

- Simple examples of an election count by the
single transferable vote. And Meek's method.
The original and genuine proportional representation, that allows freedom of individual choice to establish any desired degree of national unity, with an order of choice for several candidates, in the same or different parties, (also independents) and not just proportional partisanship that passes for "PR."

Thomas Wright Hill's informal teaching democratic procedure by the intuition of voters transfering, so the most prefered candidates are proportionly elected.

The version of STV that simply uses representative sampling to transfer surplus votes without fractional weighting.

A simple example of STV using the Senatorial Rules.

An elementary demonstration of how the computer count known as Meek's method works.

- Scientific method of elections:
Electoral method solved by scientific method, related to the four scales of measurement.

Summaries of how and how not to do it.

Proportional representation is not just between parties, but within, across and without parties, and also can be considered in just as many ways with respect to constituencies.

Democratic method illustrates scientific method, in terms of theory and experiment.Philosophy of science refutes bad voting methods. How ad hoc additional member systems, as inconsistent theories of choice, fail to test public opinion. And how their double vote puts the legislative and executive roles, of two classes of MPs, at cross-purposes.

- Against the Jenkins report.
Absurdities of the unloved Alternative Vote Top-up, proposed by the Jenkins report.

Refuting the report's case against the single transferable vote. - The Ashdown Diaries 1997 - 1999: lessons for electoral reform.

- British Columbia chooses a voting system.
- Citizens Assemblies of Canada choose a voting system.
- STV elections, not single member exclusions nor list appointments.

*Submission to Ontario Citizens Assembly.* - "One Ballot. Two Votes." as a premature report: Two Wrongs dont make One Right. (Ontario CA's "Democracy At Work" also reviewed.)
- Party leaders sabotaged the BC Citizens Assembly and referendum experiment.
- Power in the European Union and English regions (with Sir David Steel's
Edinburgh lecture).
*No summary.*

- The Kerley report on Scottish local democracy
(recommended Single Transferable Vote: STV).
Qualifications for councillors approved.

Addressing the criticisms of the pro-STV Kerley report, as typified by its own minority dissent, re proportion: making party proportionality a basis for elections reduces to the absurdity of counting everyone as their own partisan.

Lack of coherence, among proportional partisans, in practise or principle.

Criticising the critics of the Kerley report's majority decision, re representation. Their inability to let go of the single member's representative 'link' -- the euphemism for 'monopoly', which they rightly decide is incompatible with the ( democratic ) principle of sharing by proportional representation ( properly conceived ). - The Sunderland report on Welsh local elections
(recommended STV).
Following the dialog between the commission and the public, with extra comments by this reviewer on why the commission majority was right to recommend STV for local elections in Wales.

The cabinet system of partisan government's suppression of independent thought. - Authority lets down the Arbuthnott report:
*Not*"putting citizens first" for Scotland's parliament(but at least recommended STV for Scottish Euro-elections).

The Richard Report, on the Welsh Assembly (recommended STV).The Arbuthnott report makes assertions about voting methods that may not prove authoritative against logic and evidence. Its decisions are consequently less decisive, even when to some good, advocating STV for Scottish Euro-elections. On balance, the report delays at a crucial time for democratic progress in Britain. The Arbuthnott report conveys an undoubted confusion among the Scottish people but is found to be holding a mirror to itself.

The Richard commission is more positive towards the Welsh people and their report more instructive. Its STV voting recommendation is the democratic one for the Welsh Assembly, which, like the Sunderland report for STV on local elections, the subsequent one-party government turned down. - Does the Power commission give more "Power to the
People" than to the parties?
The Power commission chaired by Helena Kennedy produced a report on Power to the People, which wants to remove first past the post but fails to recommend a practical voting method, if mildly pro-STV. It fails to appreciate that an absence of economic democracy is undermining what little political democracy there is.

- Choice Voting America? (Proportional
Representation by Single Transferable Vote: STV/PR.)
(1) Turn-out and primaries. (2) Against corporatism.

- Binomial STV: 1st and 2nd order counts.
A series like the binomial series can be used as a guide to higher orders of STV count more closely approximating a definitive election result. Binomially, classical STV is a zero order count, Reversible STV was an incomplete version of a first order count and the Retransferable Vote needed less modification to be a second order count.

- Further example and development of First and
Second order Binomial STV counts (for 5 seats).
Examples of first and second order Binomial STV, the version of transferable voting that averages counts to get over-all results, instead of conventional STV systems' use of a single count. Statistical limits on bland candidates' succeeding by less unpreference than preference.

- The same 1st and 2nd order Binomial STV example for 7 seats.
- Seven seat example supplemented by Condorcet
group-pairing.
Condorcet pairing establishes an over-all winner between candidates systematicly paired. In this example, the same is done between a few randomly chosen groups of candidates. In either case, the candidates' votes, as keep values, are averaged to find a more quantitativly precise Condorcet winner than Condorcet's original proposal still in use. This result, is in turn averaged with the Binomial STV result (from the previous page for 7 seats) for over-all preferences between the candidates.

- Keep-value Averaging (Binomial and Condorcet
counts of) Transferable Voting. Reply to criticism of conventional STV.
Social choice theorists exemplified possibly untoward results from the use of last past the post exclusion in STV. Over-coming this drawback using methods of STV with more rational exclusion count to complement the rational election count and make possible controled re-counts of candidates' surplus - and deficit - keep values, which can be averaged for a more representative result.

- Keep-value averaged STV answer to apology for
anarchy of voting methods.
Averaging of surplus and deficit keep-values from controled re-counts of an election, by 1st and 2nd order Binomial STV and also of keep-value weighted Condorcet pairing. The example was previously used, by Condorcet's successors to show different voting methods get different results, and is here used to show method need not be arbitrary.

- Harmonic Mean Quota for very highly
Proportional Representation in Single Transferable Vote (STV) Elections.
Introducing the Harmonic Mean quota for a considerably higher proportional representation for the single transferable vote (STV), in multi-member constituencies, than the Droop quota, still retained for single-members and when voters dont rank enough choices.

- Ontario Citizens Assembly and due process for
future assemblies.
Ontario CA provides a warning to future trials. They should last a year, like a qualifying course or government commission. There should be no political interference from an official line endorsed by academics. Dissenting outside opinion should be given plenty of time for the assembly to assimilate all points of view and not just assume conventional wisdom.

- The Straw Man Referendum on the Alternative Vote
in the UK.
Politicians give themselves alternative votes (thru exhaustive ballots) for their party leaderships, so they cannot reasonably deny preferential voting to the public (tho it takes STV to elect most first preferences and meet democratic standards of voting method).

- The duncing of a nation: How misrepresentation
won the AV referendum.
Hysterical Press bias against the minor AV reform, like their pro-nuclear frenzy, establishes the case for the "Fairness doctrine."

- When knowledge fails belief: referendums.
Guidelines to referendums, considering their democratic value as surveyed beliefs, as distinct from accredited knowledge.

- A death penalty referendum in the context of
social violence.
The destabilising of personal relations and society by violence, including the death penalty.

- Draconian sentencing: 20 years for an
intimacy.
Enslavement to sexuality is only compounded by judicial enslavement to fear.

- Compromis speling and the humbl apostrofe as
savior of English literasy.
A guide to the rules for rational consonants while taking advantage of conventional spelling to avoid building a house on sand by some arbitrary fonetic standard for the ever shifting sands of vowel pronunciations!

- Get REAL: Rational English Alfabet Literacy.
Teaching children a simple English alfabet for its own efficiency in writing and as a basis for learning complicated English spelling. John Downing's official research showed the principle of an early-learning alfabet worked with ITA but he deeply regreted its addition of new letters, leading to its disuse.

- English Spelling Priorities: the ESP alfabet.
English spelling rules given priority over conflicting rules, to secure one-letter one-sound alfabet, also a letter code to abbreviate common words.

Proposal for regular English past tense. - English Speling Alfabet and World Roman
Alfabet.
Literasy combined with short-hand by speling out the English alfabet with all its main fonemes, and comparing a basic World Roman Alfabet.

- Measurement of language and logic.
Can grammar be considered as a measurement structure? Classical and fuzzy logic in terms of measurement scales and the binomial and multinomial theorems.

The library system is our democratic infrastructure, with further role as
information-rich standing polling stations. A further case against library closures. (*January 2011*)

Modèle Scientifique du Procès Electoral.

Les quatre règles de mesure généralement acceptées, comme elles sont représentées dans une progression logique, par: (1) un vote par personne (2) de préférence (3) transférables en tant que surplus et que déficits de (4) quote-part Droop, font ensemble un système électoral appelé le scrutin transférable (ST; en anglais, 'STV: single transferable vote') qui est, par conséquent, un modèle électoral de mesure.

- Ancient Athenian democracy.
Solon's law-giving, as told in Plutarch's

*Lives*, and Pericles' funeral oration on the principles of Athens, as told by Thucydides. - Seneca: on anger
Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Roman philosopher, c 4 BC to 65 AD; translation by Aubrey Stewart.

Condemnation of anger as the most repulsive and foolish of vices. Discussion of how to allay and remedy its evil effects, not least in oneself. - Chief Seattle: from a letter to the American
President (1855).
Early warning of destruction by pollution of the sacred earth. Even the white man needs nature reserves.

- From John Stuart Mill letters: proportional
representation, and other issues.
Extracts from John Stuart Mill's letters, on proportional representation as personal representation; on the economy, environment and women's suffrage; and on English aristocratic and reactionary sentiment.

- A Declaration of the Rights of Man.
A charter prepared in 1940, under the Chairmanship of Lord Sankey, and originally drafted for discussion by H. G. Wells.

A Charter of Scientific Fellowship

Initiated, in 1942, also by H G Wells.

- William Lovett: Chartism.
Review of 'The Life and Struggles of William Lovett', autobiography 1876, the 'moral force' Chartist and author of the famous six points for equal representation.

Organiser who anticipated the peace and cultural initiatives of the UN, such as UNESCO. - Jill Liddington: Rebel Girls.
Review of largely new historical evidence for the role especially of working women in Yorkshire campaigning for the suffrage.

- "How the banks robbed the world."
An abridged description of the BBC2 program explanation of the fraud in corporate finance, that destroys the public's investments.

- David Craig and Matthew Elliott: Fleeced!

How we've been betrayed by the politicians, bureaucrats and bankers and how much they've cost us. - The political system fails the eco-system.
Over thirty years of Green warnings, by campaigners and the media, and the hope for grass roots reforms.

How expensively professionalised services deprive the poor of even their most essential needs. And how even the developed countries are over-strained on this account and draw in trained people from deprived countries.The amateur lawyer and open source software.

Two more examples to show why society should deprofessionalise basic skills important for people's most essential needs, whether in the third world or the 'over-developed' countries.

- The Special Theory of Relativity.
Part One: The Michelson-Morley Experiment and the Lorentz transformations.

Part two: The Minkowski Interval.

The evolution of the special theory in terms of the Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Minkowski Interval.

Part three: The Lorentz transformations.

An example in arithmetic of how the Lorentz transformations change the co-ordinates between observers in relative motion, with regard to their space, time and velocity measurements, but how they observe the same, constant velocity of light. - Lorentz
transformations of geometric means, Minkowski Interval as common
geometric mean, and their dispersions.
The Lorentz transformations and the Interval as geometric means bring dispersions not apparent in low velocity classical physics..

- Statistical prediction of the Michelson-Morley
experiment.
Geometric averaging, of the respective ranges in the split light beam journeys, correctly predicts the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment.

- Lorentz transformation and Interval non-solutions of the Michelson-Morley
calculation.
Demonstrations that the arithmetic averaging of the calculation is inconsistent with both formulas of Special Relativity.

- An Acceleration Interval?
The Interval can be re-formulated into a binomial expansion of different velocities (implying acceleration) in a geometric series, such that the conventional Interval appears in the first two terms of a more complete "acceleration Interval." Successive terms seems to be both a geometry and an average, expressing a probable degree of space-time curvature. Relativistic time enters this probability distribution of curvatures.

Maybe the Michelson-Morley calculation should have been based not on Galilean (velocity) relativity principle but on Galilean (acceleration) measure of force principle, applied to light which has mass in motion. Thus, General Relativity of observers in accelerated frames of reference may be implicit in Special Relativity. Notably the thought experiment of Einsteins lift may be relevant to the Michelson-Morley experiment, in terms of gravitational wave effects.

- Physics and freedom.
The first principle of democracy science, which should hold, say, in physics, as well as political science, is that the most general scientific theory is tested by the freest 'electoral' method. In common sense terms, knowledge and freedom depend on each other. 'Know the truth and it will make you free.'

- Mach principle applied to Mathematics and Special
Relativity, and a Caldera model of the Cosmos.
Mach principle, of self-contained explanation of the physical universe, may also be applied to the universe of numbers. Statistics, of representative numbers or averages, applies Mach's self-referal principle to maths of circular functions. This application is found in the special relativity Interval, justifying it as a geometric mean, with a dispersion.

When light is taken to be a geometric mean radius, different observers' velocity measurements may be taken as different dispersions about the light speed mean. The light speed mean radius might be modeled as an impassable caldera wall of infinite height - actually two walls that never quite meet. On the inside is our tardyonic cosmos. Whereas the outer wall would be tachyonic, which quantum effects might possibly infer the existence of. - The Minkowski Interval predicts the
Michelson-Morley experiment.
The conventional Interval form, having a negative sign in relation to a fourth dimension, represents back and forth aligned relative motion of light to an observed local velocity. The Interval can also take the form of Pythagoras theorem in four dimensions, with the fourth dimension also positive, because the Interval here represents transverse relative motion.

With equal magnitudes of the aligned velocity and the transverse velocity, and with the two Intervals equal, their respective times are also equal. This meets the conditions and gives the correct result for the Michelson-Morley experiment. In effect, the Interval is being used to take the geometric mean as the correct average (where a measure of acceleration is implicit; the factor also needed to resolve the twin paradox) of the times of the split light beams' return journeys, so they come out equal.

Interval symmetry, of radius magnitude besides rotation direction, implies momentum vector conservation.

The Minkowski Interval with rotational symmetry also has radius symmetry, which implies, not only angular momentum conservation, but vector momentum conservation.

- Statistical basis of Differentiation and
Geometric Mean Differentiation of an Interval acceleration.
Conventional differentiation is, in effect, arithmetic (or harmonic) mean differentiation for one, rather than many, terms in an arithmetic (or harmonic) series. A new geometric mean differentiation of exponential functions uses an unlimiting process to a change-variable as geometric series term (or more).

A basic relation of statistical differentiation is that successive conventional differentiations are found inverted in the successive terms of a GM differentiation of exponential decay, divided by the function in question.

Example of GM differentiation for an accelerated Minkowski Interval. - Light speed by time as fourth dimension of space.

An Event-horizon universe. An hour-glass universe.Conjectures: 1) Just as Earth-gravity holds down bodies from space's third-dimension, a spatial fourth dimension may be beyond all masses in the universe. (This fourth dimension of space might be the light velocity multiplied by time, in the Minkowski Interval.)

The light speed barrier suggests the universe has a black hole's event-horizon, that no mass can surpass.

An event-horizon universe might explain the seemingly accidental "critical density" for a stable universe, as a conservative equilibrium phenomenum, such as a cosmological Inflation of a proto-foton, given a path sum-over-histories, might gravitationly stabilise akin to the equilibrium of satellite ballistics, so slow light paths, energise to tardyons, and fast light paths, to tachyons, respectively, like centripetal and centrifugal force, vector an event-horizon equilibrium of observed light velocity.

2) that an hour-glass universe, constructed from the modal rotation of the normal distribution, is a possible example of how a geometric mean differentiation of the Interval, in special relativity, might be adapted, as general relativity is, to cosmology. - Random choice models for a GM derivative of
a Thermo-dynamic Relativity.
Another continuation page of Statistical basis of Differentiation etc.

- The Michelson-Morley null result as a
linear-angular momentum change conservation.
Vector analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment justifies the null result of same times for differingly earth-relative split light beams and suggests a joint conservation of change in momentum, linear and angular.

- Special Relativity as an Observers Agreement of
Averages.
The Fitzgerald-Lorentz factor is an implicit geometric mean that enables the correct prediction to the Michelson-Morley experiment, whose significance is that Special Relativity is an agreement of (geometric mean) averages between local observations.

- The Michelson-Morley experiment satisfies the Principle of Least Action.
Least Action supports the use of the geometric mean as a more principled explanation than the ad hoc "shrinking factor" to account for the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment.

- The exponential function as geometric mean
derivative of Fibonacci algebra.

Investigations into basic operations of geometric mean differentiation.Fibonacci algebra as geometric mean anti-derivatives of exponential functions. Some ground rules for a new branch of a statisticly based differential calculus: geometric mean derivatives. Also, the Minkowski Interval in geometric mean velocity form.

Commentary On W W Sawyer's

( 1 ) Fibonacci series and damped wave equation.*A Path To Modern Mathematics.*

( 2 ) Circular function and wave equation.

( 3 ) Coupled oscillator and wave equation.Linear analysis of problems, with additive solutions, to find a pair of perpendicular vectors that dont change direction, making these 'eigenvectors' suitable as fixed co-ordinates, which can show relationships in terms of simple changes of magnitude, the 'eigenvalues'.

- Pascal's triangle and Pascal-Fibonacci triangle converted into wave graphs
Pascal's triangle rows graph as successive discrete approximations to the bell-shaped curve. But this triangle, and a slant-rowed Pascal-Fibonacci count, can be co-ordinated to graph as wave forms.

The diffusion equation as a finite difference equation.

Reducing a solution of the partial differential equation to the arithmetic of the binomial and multinomial distributions.

Laplace's equation, the diffusion equation, as finite difference equations in two dimensions, or more.

Laplace's equation and the diffusion equation or heat conduction equation considered as partial difference equations in two spatial dimensions, or more, with solutions in terms of the binomial and multinomial distributions of probability. Graphs show the diffusion process and states of distribution.

- A measure of evolution. Diffusion equation of
natural selection and elections.
Natural science as part of natural history or evolution, on the scales of measurement. The greatest freedom of choice in measurement makes possible the most comprehensive knowledge or most general theoretical understanding. This considered as evolutionary adaptiveness, in physics and politics, as well as biology.

- Scientific theories and methods modeled on natural
selection.
Manfred Eigen's theory of inorganic natural selection; Lee Smolin's theory of cosmological natural selection and its relation to connectionist theory of memory landscapes; 'natural selection' as a method of evolving programs too complex for rational design; and its role in language learning and spelling reform.

- Conditioning and Instinct.
The behaviorist conditioning of Pavlov and Skinner reflect totalitarian and hedonist societies, based on obedience and pleasure, teaching slavery by way of habits or appetites.

Ethology, resembling a revival of instinct psychology, and breaking out of the imprisoning laboratory, observes and compares often instinctive behavior in animals in their natural environments. This may help to explain human behavior patterns, that live on after the reason for them has been forgotten, when they may do more harm than good.

- Electoral meaning to Buffon's needle; Complex
probability and Infinitely perfect numbers.
Buffon's needle is a test for sinusoidal probability, which may be adaptable to whether the number of elective first preferences in STV elections are much above chance. A sine-generating circle of chance may be likened to my model of first order binomial STV.

Negative and imaginary transfer values may be adapted to a notion of complex probability.

Slightly defective perfect numbers may be considered as infinitely perfect numbers and algorithm for temporal diffusion. - Maths of Physics and Politics.
Classical mechanics of wave motion as a mathematical model for election quota levels of equal representation.

- Penrose dodecahedrons:
(1) in preference permutations.

(2) 'electorally' interpreted.Quantum correlations of separated observers' choices, geometrically represented by their respective 'magic dodecahedra', whose automatic effects on each other cannot be explained by light signals or pre-arranged rules.

Suggested proof and prediction based on no first choice being pre-assignable, instead of Penrose's proof based on non-pre-assignable last choices.

- J W N Sullivan review of Albert Einstein: Relativity.
Four women scientists who

*should*have won nobel prizes.Lise Meitner, Madame Wu, Rosalind Franklin and Jocelyn Bell were the four women scientists. Reading of their work in popular science accounts led me, by chance, to think they deserved nobel prizes: no feminist program at work here.

Julian Barbour:

*The End Of Time.*In classical physics (1) triangle land; (2) geometric dynamics.

In quantum mechanics (1)making waves; (2) quantum cosmology.Applying Mach's principle, to Newton's external frame-work of absolute space and time, both in classical physics and to Schrödinger's wave equation of quantum mechanics, by which the universe is made properly self-referential, as a timeless 'relative configuration space' or Platonia.

Murray Gell-Mann:

*The Quark and the Jaguar.*Themes, including complex systems analysis, from Murray Gell-Mann's The Quark and the Jaguar, illustrated by voting methods.

Brian Greene: The Elegant Universe.

(1) Super-strings. (2) Hidden dimensions.Beyond point particle physics to a theory of 'strings' that may under-lie the four known forces of nature, and its material constituents, thru super-symmetry, given that the 'super-strings', as such, are allowed to vibrate, their characteristic particle patterns, in extra hidden dimensions of space.

- Brian Greene: The Hidden Reality.
A survey of physics theories that have invoked many worlds or a multiverse..

- Lee Smolin: Three roads to quantum gravity.
Reviewing the other two roads ( besides string theory ) namely black hole cosmology and loop quantum gravity. All three approaches are converging on a discrete view of space and time, in basic units, on the Planck scale. General relativity's space-time continuum is being quantised, rather as nineteenth century thermo-dynamics of continuous radiation was quantised.

- Lee Smolin: the trouble with physics.
Impatience with the remoteness of string theory and hope for progress from theories with more experimental predictions. How to make research more effective. Smolin's scientific ethic. Reviewer's criticism of the artificial divide academics make between science and ethics.

- The sixth extinction.
Mankind is the agent of destruction for countless life forms including possibly himself, in the sixth mass extinction planet earth has endured in its history. Why the world's politicians must work together to counter the effects of global warming.

*Richard Lung.*

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