Democracy Science

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The Democracy Science series and all my other books may be obtained in epub format from my Smashwords page.

(More information about the books is linked near the foot of this home page. The books are partly edited versions of some of the following web pages.)

2019 bicentenary: Thomas Wright Hill

The three times great grand-father of David Hill, programmer of the Meek method algorithm, wrote the first known voting rules using a quota-preferential method.

1819 marks the first recorded use of proportional representation, using the transferable voting principle, invented by Thomas Wright Hill. for electing the committee of a Society for Literary and Scientific Improvement in Birmingham.. More information can be found from The STV Action website: STV Action.

The remarkable fact is that electoral science has not followed the exponential growth of other sciences. Steady advances, after Hill, were made in the 19th century, by Carl Andrae, and Thomas Hare, Herman Droop, JB Gregory and Inglis Clark. But in the previous hundred years, the outstanding contribution may be by Brian Meek.

A sense of scientific progress seems to have been widely lost from voting method. Since at least the nid-twentieth century, cynicism and negativity have prevailed against the improvement of representative democracy, pioneered by Hare and Mill, more than one and a half centuries ago.
Voting method is not a fashion statement. Or, as HG Wells said: It is not a matter of opinion but a matter of demonstration.

Electoral reform and research.

How partisans resist effective democracy;
single transferable vote (STV) justification.
More pages:

Reports for single transferable vote (more or less):

Research into single transferable vote method of democracy.

Liberating democracy from Impossibility Theorem.

Binomial STV and the Harmonic Mean quota.

Three Averages Binomial STV.

The moral sciences.

Other essays

The Four Loves: romance, friendship, affection and charity. (From C S Lewis)

Sigmund Freud and CG Jung:
seeking the whole man thru a democracy of ones selfs.

The moral sciences as the ethics of scientific method.

Science is ethics or "electics."
A synthesis of deterministic & statistical world-views.

Relativity theory and election method.

Constitutional Economics

The menace of the nuclear tyranny.

The determined dishonesty of atomic energy.

Nuclear deterence threatens its own world war crime.

Nuclear annihilation.

The republic of letters:

En français: (In French)

Modèle Scientifique du Procès Electoral. (Scrutin Transferable: Single Transferable Vote.)

Democracy archives and reviews.

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Special theory of relativity (old pages under renovation).

Maths & Science Reviews.

Democracy Science brief descriptions of above contents.

Getting Ideas: How I dreamt my life away
and survey of this site. (However, this was before the e-book age and my more recent findings.)

Simpler English spelings Home page of some early versions to these pages. (More consistent than conventional English, tho superseded by my later spelling reforms.)

Relegated pages (or junk-yard).

Links to other sites.

Reviews of recent Science Fiction e-books etc.

Collected verse by Richard Lung.


1, The Valesman;
2, Dates and Dorothy;
3. He's a Good Dog. (He just doesn't like you to laf.);
4. In The Meadow Of Night;
5 Radical!

The Democracy Science series.

Four e-books on electoral reform & research may be down-loaded free, in epub format from Smashwords, (Three e-books on electoral reform and research are linked here: as pdf files from the pdf archive). Also available, minimally priced, from Amazon.
Down-loading the Calibre program enables reading e-books in many formats.

The Commentaries series.

(Four more e-books available from Smashwords in epub format.)

Help notes on self-publishing electronic books.

The works of H.G. Wells

came out of copyright, 70 years after his death. Wells might have been dismayed to find that he is still ahead of his time, not least on electoral reform. The first part of "FAB STV:..." appreciates his contribution to electoral knowledge, amongst other discussions of his writings, scattered in my books.

I have edited and published his main writings on "sane voting" in one substantial book (linked on my Smashwords page, linked at top of this home page): The Angels Weep: H.G. Wells on Electoral Reform.

A bibliography with quotes also includes minor references by Wells on proportional representation and economic representation: World peace thru democracy: HG Wells neglected third phase.

Poetry & Novels of Dorothy Cowlin; Literature & Liberty.

(After many years, this site has been released from its former host, and now finds a home here.)

Wikipedia has a Dorothy Cowlin biography.


January 2019.

e-mail: voting[at]ukscientists[dot]com

Copyright © Richard Lung.

This Democracy Science site began in Spring 1999 at a former venue.

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